Black dating in alabama
Today the term "Black Belt" is commonly used by scholars and the media as a demographic characterization, as well as a geologic one. The region's distance from the front lines during the American Civil War saved it from much of the ravages of war. Because Alabama was geographically central to the slave states, Montgomery was also designated as the original capital of the Confederate States of America. The soils have developed continuously at least since the Pliocene Epoch. Birmingham, the largest and most industrialized city in the state, was among those whose residents, both black and white, had been underrepresented for decades in the state legislature.
Around —20, the infestation of the cotton crop by the boll weevil destroyed much of the crops and plantation system, but the lingering effects of a cotton economy remain evident. Geology[ edit ] The region is underlain by a thin layer of rich, black topsoil developed atop the chalk of the Selma Group , a geologic unit dating to the Cretaceous. Counties[ edit ] The list of counties comprising the Black Belt is often dependent on the context but historically includes 18 counties: These included Rosa Parks ' refusal to give up her bus seat, which led to the Montgomery Bus Boycott ; the Selma to Montgomery marches of and voter registration reform drives, focusing in Selma, to enable African Americans to vote see Voting Rights Act. Before the American Civil War , these plantations were worked by thousands of African American slaves. The Black Belt's largest city, Montgomery , was designated as the capital of Alabama in They had been essentially disenfranchised after conservative white Democrats regained political power in the state in the late 19th century. But, African Americans continue to make up the majority proportion of the population in most rural Black Belt counties. The soils have developed continuously at least since the Pliocene Epoch. Lacking a reliable source of water, the earliest settlers avoided farming the black soil in the belt until the discovery that deep artesian wells could be drilled to supply water for people, livestock, and crops. The region's distance from the front lines during the American Civil War saved it from much of the ravages of war. Because Alabama was geographically central to the slave states, Montgomery was also designated as the original capital of the Confederate States of America. Birmingham, the largest and most industrialized city in the state, was among those whose residents, both black and white, had been underrepresented for decades in the state legislature. To escape lynchings and social oppression, and after the boll weevil and increased mechanization of agriculture, thousands of African Americans left Alabama to go to industrial cities of the North and Midwest in the Great Migration of the first half of the 20th century. Along with high rates of poverty, the area is typified by declining populations, a primarily agricultural landscape with low-density settlement, high unemployment, poor access to education and medical care, substandard housing and high rates of crime. Today the term "Black Belt" is commonly used by scholars and the media as a demographic characterization, as well as a geologic one. Because the underlying chalk is nearly impermeable to groundwater , the black soils tend to dry out during the summer. Many descendants of freed slaves continued to work as sharecroppers and laborers after emancipation, but many migrated among the counties, moved to cities, or left the state for other opportunities. The state legislature did not redistrict to reflect population changes and the rise of urban areas from to , when it was ordered by a federal court, following important apportionment cases such as Baker v. Beginning in the s after Indian Removal , cotton plantations were developed that produced the commodity crop that became Alabama's greatest source of wealth. Many of the Greek Revival mansions of the 19th-century planters have survived, as have some of the plantations' slave quarters. Whites made voter registration and voting so difficult that most blacks and many poor whites were excluded from the political system for decades. Gaineswood in Demopolis and Magnolia Grove in Greensboro, Alabama are among those that can be visited by tourists today. The white planters and their elected representatives of the Black Belt established political power in the state legislature in the cotton era; the white rural elite retained their dominance long after the state began to develop more urbanized areas and an industrial economy. The natural vegetation of the chalk belt consisted mainly of oak-hickory forest interspersed with shortgrass prairie, while the sandy ridges flanking the chalk belt supported pine forest. The Black Belt region had the highest density of population in the state and was majority-black.
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